Water from underground sources has been exploited for many years to be used in homes, for livestock.

Water from underground sources has been exploited for many years to be used in homes, for livestock as well as irrigation. As Howsam (2007) clearly explains, though, the exact way of how water occur underground may not be well understood by the people using the water, successful abstraction methods has been used to abstract water from various sources and under varying conditions. However, there is need to treat and assess the quality of the ground water before using the water.
Generally, the method of treatment will highly depend on the source and the properties of abstracted water. Consequently, for water abstracted from upland reservoir in an area of a sheep farming area which is known to be “soft” and to have unacceptable taste and colour with a pH of 5. 5, its treatment strategies will differ from that from a network of pumped wells delivering anaerobic groundwater from a chalk aquifer. This paper thus aims at comparing and contrasting the various treatment strategies that could be used.
Quality tests recommended Turbidity measure: Turbidity of water involves measuring the amount of light that could pass through water; this will indicate how “cloudy” that sample of water is. Turbidity results from particles that are suspended in water being assessed and it is a crucial control measure of how water disinfection has performed. Water turbidity measurement occurs at two varied points; at the treatment plant and at the consumer taps. Chemical quality water assessment
The regulations set by the water Quality of 2000 outlines all the minimum tests that are needed for each chemical as well as physical parameter. The parameters that are measured include but are not limited to: colour, odour, taste, ammonium level, aluminium level, iron, manganese, sodium among other chemical properties. An critical aspect in quality assurance of water when using chemical in water treatment is make sure that the used chemicals are those that are specified and does not harm consumers or change the properties of water. Treating water form upland reservoir
Tastes and odours In water from the ground like from sheep reservoir, the taste and the odors come from the hydrogen sulphide and other organic substances together with dissolved minerals such as manganese, iron, zinc and copper. Even though these substances are usually not dangerous in amounts normally found in the many of the groundwater, the presence of these substances could result in consumers refusing such water. Thus, such water has to be treated. Adjustment of PH Adjusting the pH is very important in water treatment especially that those meant for drinking.
The removal of coagulation, corrosion and controlling softening all are aspects that assist in adjustment of pH. Stabilizers Waters from the reservoir that is considered to be soft could be hardened slightly through use of cation resin exchange. To improve the level of “softness” in the water, calcium magnesium is added to the water to give the water the right texture Adsorption This is a treatment strategy that involves physical process that happens when liquids are suspended or dissolved in a matter so that the particles in that water could be adsorbed in an adsorbent medium.
In most cases carbon filters are used as adsorbent medium Pumped wells delivering anaerobic groundwater from a chalk aquifer Ultraviolet treatment This water treatment method uses ultraviolet light in order to disinfect water. That is to decrease the amount of bacterial that is found in the water. Removal of algae The bad taste could be due to toxic or because of odorous algal blooms that could be present in the reservoirs. In many cases, copper sulphate. However, before using chemical treatment, the possible impacts on water reservoir biota (Faust and Aly, 1998).
The build-up of chemicals used in water treatment such as copper could have a negative impact on the downstream treatment. More so, the quality of water treated has to taken into consideration. Coagulation and flocculation The main application of coagulant as well as flocculant chemicals is removing the suspended and also the colloidal solids like clays. In particular, coagulate are significant in treating surface waters. The elimination of the solids is attained through aggregating small suspended substances into big flocs.
The coagulant as well as the flocculant chemicals at the same time is able to eliminate various organic substances, color and other micro-organisms like bacteria, algae and viruses. The amount and strength of the formed floc is able to be controlled and managed according to the treatment method used. Sedimentation or filtration could be used to remove the floc. Disinfection Generally, disinfection of water is used alone or as the last step in treatment of water subsequent to either clarification or filtration.
In many cases, disinfection is mainly applied to prevent bacterial, viruses or any other protozoa that could get into the distribution system. Generally, chemicals that are used to disinfect drinking water are strong oxidants like chlorine, ozone as well as hydrogen peroxide. However, the effectiveness of disinfection mostly depends on the sources of water that is being treated. In addition, the effectiveness of disinfection also could be affected by the turbidity of the water, pH and the organic substances.
The objective of water treatment processes applied before disinfection ought to result in water that has the lowest level of turbidity and organic substances. Too much particulate substances in water could result in protection of micro-organisms against the disinfection chemicals. Conclusion However, as Howsam (2007) states, all chemicals that are used in water treatment whether in chalk or reservoir, ought to be assessed for possible contaminants and restrictions ought to be known. Generally the main aspect of carrying out water treatment is to ensure that the quality of the water is right and does not adversely impact the consumers.
Water treatment chemicals are mainly used in treating water to essentially reduce or remove the cases of waterborne disease, public heath issues, and also to improve the taste and quality of that water. However, as American Water Works Association (1997) notes any chemical that is used in treatment of water has to be effective, to produce the desired wishes, should not present any public health worry and ought not to result in any chemical or contaminants that exceed drinking water stipulated values.
AWWA (American Water Works Association) (1997): and ASCE (American Association of Civil Engineers): Water Treatment Plant Design, 3rd edition. McGraw-Hill Professional, USA Faust, S and Aly O (1998): Chemistry of Water Treatment, 2nd edition. Ann Arbor Press, Michigan Howsam, P (2007): Bio fouling in Wells and Aquifers: Water and Environment Journal Volume 2 Issue 2, Pages 209 – 215 (Available online). Letterman R (2002) Ed). Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Community Water Supplies, American Water Works Association, 5th edition. McGraw-Hill Professional, New York