1.     You have until 4:00 pm this evening to complete the exam.  You must upload it through Canvas (Word or PDF files only).  If you have trouble with the upload and/or miss the deadline, email the exam directly to me.   2.     I will use the timestamp on your email if you do not upload your file through Canvas.  Any exams submitted late will face a significant penalty.  


3.     Make sure your name is at the top of the file that you submit.  I will deduct points if your name is not typed at the top of your submittal.



You must answer all 3 questions and they are equally weighted

.  In your responses to each question be sure to include at least 5 references from the literature.  These references can be articles that you read for class and/or references that you read outside of class or that were described in our readings.  NOTE ABOUT YOUR CITED REFERENCES:  You do not have to write out the full citation for the references on the exam, just the author and year are fine (e.g., “Singh, 1999”).   5.     Please do not feel you have to slant your discussion toward a particular theoretical or political agenda – you do not have to have the same opinions as me about the subject matter – the main thing is to be complete and provide support for your answers.  6.     The exam is open book and open notes.  You may not discuss the exam or any portion of your responses with anyone until after the exam has been turned in.  By the nature of the questions, you could write for hours, days or even weeks on each question, but I will grade you based on what I would think you should be able to develop over a 4-hour period.  I am looking for clarity and a good sense of understanding of the theory and concepts that underlie each question.   7.     As you write your responses, make sure that you have fully read the questions and clearly indicate which questions you are responding too. I do not particularly care about the format – double or single spaced, margins, etc.  I do have one request, use Times New Roman or Arial 12 point font.  These are easy for me to read.   8.     Good luck! 

MGMT 877 – Exam 1

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QUESTIONS (You must answer all three questions and they are equally weighted) 


  1. What is opportunity recognition (OR) and why is it an important construct to entrepreneurship scholars?  Do you agree or disagree with the question that Hanson et al. (2011) asked, “Since we clearly don’t fully understand or agree exactly what opportunity is, and opportunity is central to entrepreneurship, can we really understand what entrepreneurship is?”  Why or why not? What are some of the major findings that inform us about the OR process based on published papers and theory?  What do we not yet understand?  What are some of the important directions that researchers need to go in the future to better understand OR?  



  1. Historically, researchers have spent a great deal of time and energy examining whether entrepreneurs are somehow different from the general population, managers and other non-entrepreneur groups.  What have been some of the major findings from this perspective to date?  What is(are) the primary criticism(s) of the individual differences/traits approach to studying entrepreneurs?  



  1. Over the last 20 years, there has been a growing effort to better understand entrepreneurial cognitions.  What is the purpose of this research and the primary goals that researchers hope to achieve?  How is it similar to traditional traits research?  How is it different?  What do we know based on research to date?  What are the criticisms and limitations of cognitions research?  What future research directions with respect to cognitions do you believe may yield important new knowledge to the entrepreneurial process?