The way, with what tools you conducted this research, what experience did you focus on, what literature you studied.
When checking work, not much attention is paid to research methods. Probably because it’s a very simple graph. However, questions about research methods may be asked in defense, so prepare your answer.
What are “research methods”
Usually, research methods are the last or penultimate paragraph in the introduction, where you list all the methods that you used in your work.
You cannot thoughtlessly list all the methods you know. There are many of them in science; you need to list exactly those methods that are specific to your research.
The method is needed to find the truth; therefore, only scientifically based methods are used.
There should be no gag and pseudo-scientific tools in the work.
An important point that you will need: methods are theoretical and practical (empirical). In the course work, both must be involved.
The methods must be substantiated.
Each method used should be revealed in the practical part of the work.
Theoretical methods of scientific research
The study of knowledge, everything that exists only in the human mind. For example, classifications, hierarchies, systems.
It was invented by people in the course of mastering, studying an object and collected in a set of information, which became knowledge.
Theory is important for understanding the object. Before you start taking action on it, you must thoroughly study what you can and cannot do, how to act correctly, and what to expect from action. To understand ahead of time which steps will lead to which result, you study theory.
Among the theoretical methods of scientific research: hypothesis, abstraction, induction / deduction, analysis / synthesis, calculations, classifications.
Specifies a separate characteristic of the phenomenon or subject studied within the coursework. However, other qualities and characteristics are not important for research. Abstraction as a method is more often used in works of the humanitarian direction (philosophy, psychology, pedagogy, etc.).
If you use this method in the study of literature, then the student takes into account the work, the author and the genre, but the publisher, the number of pages and the city may not carry any information.
The studied subject or phenomenon is considered in comparison with similar properties. This method is not always 100% effective, but it is well established.
This method can be used in astronomy. We do not have exact information about the planets of the solar system, but thanks to similar studies, certain conclusions can be drawn.
Simple, clear and working method that is used in all research projects. It is based on structuring and dividing the objects under study according to various criteria (genres, styles, physical parameters, materials and much more).
We combine several objects and items into larger groups according to similar properties and characteristics. The purpose of the method is to identify common features and characteristics. Generalization is either inductive or empirical (from concretized features to general judgments), and analytical (from one judgment to another).
We combine the already identified and considered properties and attributes of an object into one whole. Synthesis is always directly related to analysis.
Analysis of work
We refer to the scientific works of authoritative authors, articles, notes, essays, monographs and memoirs. This method helps to identify strengths and weaknesses when studying objects. You can understand how deep the study of a particular object was carried out, and which object was left aside and was not studied at all.
Practical (empirical) methods of scientific research
When you have already mastered the theory and want to start solving real problems, you go to practice. By using empirical methods, you will start to create something new: discovery, project, program, etc.
Without the practical part, you will not be able to show what you have learned, therefore, scientific work in universities is impossible without it, and outside universities such work is simply useless. Theory is the foundation, without which practice is impossible, but the house on the foundation is more important.
Practice doesn’t have to be a set of chaotic activities, so you are resorting to hands-on research methods. These methods include observation, experiment, measurement, simulation.
The most effective and truly practical. But it is mainly applicable in larger works like diploma and master’s theses. The main principles of the experiment are evidence and repeatability. Thanks to the experiment, you can clearly see the changes taking place, how they occur and under what circumstances.
The main difference between the experiment is the ability to repeat it. It should be done intentionally, not accidentally. It is also necessary here to influence the object and record the reactions.
Galileo set up an experiment on the speed of falling and its dependence on the body. He dropped a small lead ball and a cannonball from the tower and made sure he landed faster.
We follow the object and record everything that seems important to us in the framework of the study. For example, reactions, changes or properties. The researcher does not influence the observation and does not make adjustments to what is happening. Everything should be natural and natural.
Zoologists observe from the point of view of animals, their habits, behavior in the environment, relationships with congeners and record them.
We use digital indicators and measure any physical parameters of the object (length, weight, height, volume, etc.)
You can make measurements of several animals of the same species and, based on the figures obtained, draw a conclusion about the average size of an individual.
Interview or conversation
Referring to a personal conversation with a person who is competent in matters related to the study of an object or is himself this object. Here you can get a subjective view of the problem and use it in your research.
Questionnaire or survey
Pre-written and prepared questions, the answers to which appear within the framework of the study. The survey is carried out orally or in writing, and the questionnaire is exclusively in computer or written form. Thanks to this method, conclusions can be drawn about the thoughts of society, classified by age and gender, and general opinions can be identified.
Registration of research methods in coursework
What is the main requirement for method design? They must strictly correspond to the content of the research stages and contribute to obtaining one hundred percent accurate results.
All methods used should be indicated in the introduction. It is enough just to list them, without a detailed description and explanation of each. To do this, you must write: research methods and list all used.