. How often are Army veterans who have served during wartime diagnosed with PTSD after returning to civilian life?
- Do people in marital relationships cheat because of disconnection, feeling betrayed or unloved or fear of commitment?
- Is religion seen more negatively due to religious figures deceitful behaviors and church scandals?
- Marijuana has been said to be a dangerous drug and should be banned. But, in the same breath, marijuana has been seen as a therapeutic narcotic known to help people with diseases.
- Do children, who are victims of child-abuse, subject to violence behaviors in their adulthood life?
- What unconditioned stimuli’s triggers violent behaviors in students causing them to commit mass shootings in educational settings?
I attempted to construct five measurable question which will be interesting for a research design once planning is done. For question number one, the criterion variable would be the individuals (husband or wife) affected. According to Sukal (2013), “The outcome itself is the dependent variable, also known as the outcome variable or criterion; it is the affected variable, or the consequence variable” (Sukal, 2013, para. 7). My predictor variable was identified as the variables which instigates the behaviors. There are multiple independent variables in this questions which relate to feelings of betrayal, being unloved by your partner, and fear of commitment. There could also be confounding variables that can play a substantial role within this context.
Question number two, is a personal area of interest due to the many disturbing behaviors being displayed by religious leaders. This will be an interesting topic for a potential research design. The outcome variable for this question would be religion. Our independent variables are the disturbing acts themselves such as sexual child abuse and sex crimes which has been covered up and concealed for decades by prestigious religious institutions. Question threeis yet another interesting topic. Reason, being, my mother uses medical marijuana for leukemia which is very effective for her. However, many people see marijuana as a dangerous narcotic? Nevertheless, the dependent variable here would be dangerous examples vs. effective treatment of the drug since this is being assumed to be both dangerous and therapeutic. The independent variable, would be considered the marijuana as this is the variable causing either the dangerous concerns which are conflicting with the fact that marijuana is effective in treatment for specific illnesses.
Question fouris yet another area which I am interested in. Social learning theory suggest that a cycle of violence is connected to the violent behaviors demonstrated in intimate-partner relationships, which potentially could stem from what these individuals experience in the home during childhood. Ireland and Smith (2009) mentioned that, “Links between living in a partner-violent home and subsequent aggressive and antisocial behavior are suggested by the ‘‘cycle of violence’’ hypothesis derived from social learning theory” (Ireland & Smith, 2009, p. 323). The outcome variables within this context could be multiple, consisting of children, and adults encompassing both genders and sexual orientations. Independent variables range from types of violence experience (i.e., sexual, physical, or emotional) by the child.
Last but not least, question fivedeals with a prevalent crisis which we are seeing in our children’s place of learning. School shootings and violence are becoming more prevalent each year within the United States. The dependent variables can be considered the behaviors triggering violent acts. These behaviors could be influenced by psychological disorders such as depression which identifies the dependent variables as (murder, suicide, and harm). The independent variables guides our attention to some perceptions behind mass shootings that presents sociological factors that should be taken in consideration as they create associations. Farrall, Jackson, and Gray (2009); Hawdon, Ryan, and Agnich (2010) mentioned that, “Perceptions of social solidarity are expected to capture the individual judgments of a neighborhood’s moral order and sense of community” (as cited by Vuori, 2016, p. 521).
Ireland, T. O., & Smith, C. A. (2009). Living in partner-violent families: Developmental links to antisocial behavior and relationship violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(3), 323-39. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/204523363?accountid=39364
Sukal, M. (2013). Research methods: Applying statistics in research. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Vuori, M. (2016). Revisiting local responses to mass violence. Journal of Risk Research, 19(4), 515–532. https://doi-org.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/10.1080/13669877.2014.1003317
1. What is the frequency of injury for gymnasts who train on the uneven bars during advanced training practice for the Olympics?
*The independent variable is gymnasts who train on the uneven bars during practice, and the dependent variable would be the frequency of injuries. One would deduce that injury risk may increase during extreme pressure to compete and extended hours of training in preparation of the Olympics.
*Due to increased training in preparation for the event, one may use interval data collection to address the gap between injuries several months before the tournament, then compare these statistics and develop a proportion or scaling of injuries. This method would highlight the increased risk of injury and even forecast potential areas of concern for future training initiatives.
2. What is the relationship between increased interview volume and a professional development course on resume writing?
*The dependent variable is the increase in interviews, and the independent variable is the course on resume writing. Conceptually by increasing skills with resume writing and learning the art of creating a well written professional summary will increase the number of interviews scheduled.
*Categorical data can be used to determine the range of success before and after the session. Before the course, candidates will be surveyed to assess their current interview success. After the course candidate will be polled again to determine the Median (average) of success by calculating the middle scores. This method can determine the margin of success for candidates.
3. Do SAT/ACT prep classes positively affect the attitude and confidence levels of seniors and increase scoring results for their second testing attempt?
*The dependent variable would be the scores for the student’s second attempt, and the independent variable is the prep class. By surveying high school seniors using ordinal data can determine the success of the course, similar to the previous testing example.
*However, a mixed method approach would be best to gauge the confidence levels from a qualitative approach by asking questions like, how do you feel? Similarly, by using an ordinal approach, one could have surveys that address the scaling of confidence. 1). Extremely Confident 2). Somewhat Confident 3). Confident 4). Lacked Confidence 5). Unconfident.
4. How often are Army veterans who have served during wartime diagnosed with PTSD after returning to civilian life?
*The independent variable is the veterans who served during wartime, and the dependent variable is the amount of PTSD cases found in veterans who served afterward.
*By plotting points from start to end point and analyzing the data collected from VA hospitals before and after wartimes, then developing a midpoint or range, it is possible to determine the increase or ratio of accretion between Army veterans who served during wartime and developed the disorder compared to those who have not.
5. How often do middle-aged adults taking classes for their master’s complete their degree after promotion?
*The independent variable would be promoted middle-aged adults in their master’s, and the dependent variable would be degree completion. Success is defined differently for everyone. Therefore, if an individual is vying for their degree because of promotions or better job opportunities, then they may feel accomplished enough from their advancement and no longer complete their degree.
*One could start by using the nominal scale to determine the most typically answered question within the age category. Then follow up with original scaling questions to assess their current level of education and current status in school. Then surveying further to determine their completion status and why they were unable to achieve their degree.
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Your research questions are all on interesting subjects. Some research questions are better suited to qualitative research rather than quantitative research. Since this is a class on quantitative statistics, you will end up working with a question that is appropriate for quantitative research. Questions 1, 2, and 4 will be the easiest to research quantitatively with statistics.
Some other suggestions are:
- Phrase research questions as questions. The third research question needs to be rephrased as a question. The makes it much easier to identify the dependent and independent variables too.
- In question 2, the dependent variable (outcome) is perception of religion rather than simply religion. This distinction will help when operationalizing the variable.
I hope this helps.
I am really interested in your second question; perhaps becuase I just read an article suggesting that males do not reach full maturity until the age of 43 and females at 32 (NASPA2, 2013). Granted, this is a qualitative study and that warrants further scrutiny and research, but the concept is along the same lines as your question. Your question though, offers a quantitative measure that is easily collected by obtaining the number of times the subjects have broken the law!
NASPA2. (2013, June 19). Men Mature at What Age?! Retrieved from NASPA.org: https://www.naspa.org/constituent-groups/posts/men-mature-at-what-age