Environmental Studies Lecture 2 Exam

Environmental Studies Lecture 2 Exam

Environmental Studies

Lecture Exam 2

 

1.    What, specifically, is meant by the term “natural capital”?

 

2.    Modern economics generally does a very poor job of accurately measuring real economic growth or decline because of “externalities”. What is meant by this?

 

 

 

The environment provides a great many ecological services. In lecture (and in the study guide), I discussed  4 major “bubbles” or major divisions of ecological services. List 2 of them.

3.    _______________________________________________________

4.    _______________________________________________________

Discuss, specifically, what each of the 2 “bubbles” that you chose above means and/or give a specific example

5.    ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.    ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

7.    What is the economic term of “discounting” mean?

 

 

 

8.    Why is this important in our approach to addressing things like climate change?

 

 

9.    Economic growth can occur in 2 ways. List them.

a.    __________________________________________________________

b.    __________________________________________________________

 

10. There are 3 approaches to environmental policy. One is taking legal action. What are the other two?

a.    ___________________________________________________________

b.___________________________________________________________

 

11. Of the 3 above, which one is likely to be the most effective, long term and why?

 

In lecture, I discussed 5 economic policy tools. List 2 of them.

 

 

12. ______________________________________________________

13. ______________________________________________________

 

14. Human population growth is currently exponential. What exactly does that mean?

 

 

15. It will reach a limit eventually. What is this limit called? ____________________________________________________

There are ways to change this limit to a higher number. List 1

16. ____________________________________________________________

 

17. As populations/groups of people accumulate wealth, how does this affect carrying capacity?

 

 

18. Education and wealth can affect population growth. How might it?

 

 

19. Define the term “demography’.

 

20. Population increases are caused by much more than increases in birth rate. List 2 other causes discussed in lecture and your text

a.    ________________________________________________________

b.    _________________________________________________________

21. There are several ways to address the increase in human population growth besides birth control. List 2 that we discussed in lecture and in your text.

a.    ___________________________________________________________

b.___________________________________________________________

 

22. What is the difference between measuring economic growth by GDP and by GPI?

 

 

 

23. Soil is composed of inorganic and organic particles and spaces for water and air. What else is soil composed of that is extremely important in how it functions?

 

 

24. Define the term “leaching” in terms of soil.

 

 

 

25. What was the “Green Revolution”? Be specific

 

 

 

26. Who is the person responsible for initiating the Green Revolution?

 

 

27. Soil erosion can be a problem. Why?

 

 

 

There are many ways to reduce soil erosion. List 2

28. ___________________________________________________________

29. ___________________________________________________________

 

30. There are the major differences between an inorganic and an organic fertilizer? List at least 1.

 

 

 

31. Modern aquaculture has benefits and environmental harms associated with it.  List 1 of each.

 

a.    (positive)______________________________________________________

b.    (negative)_____________________________________________________

 

32. Malnutrition is not just a result of food quantity. What else is involved?

 

 

33. In the TED video we watched with the woman from Ethiopia, she said we needed to measure food availability worldwide by a measure other than weight. What did she use as her measure?___________________________

34. In this video, she showed China going from a food exporter to a country with a large negative balance. Why was this predicted?

 

 

35. What specifically was the solution she proposed to solve the world food problem?

 

 

36. In a different TED video we watched on growing human populations, the Scandinavian speaker used two different color crates to make his point. What did these two colors signify?

 

37. What solution did he propose to alleviate the population problem?

 

 

 

38. What is a problem with that solution in terms of consumption of goods?

 

 

There are many obstacles in feeding the world’s population besides quantity. List 2 that were discussed in lecture.

39. _______________________________________________________

40. _______________________________________________________

.

 

 

41. Define accurately what GMO means.

 

42. What specifically is “random mutagenesis?

 

43. What specifically is meant by “gene splicing”?

 

 

44. A food can also be produced by selective breeding. In a way, this makes it a GMO. What, specifically is meant by selective breeding?

 

 

 

45. Define “biodiversity”.

 

 

46. Why is biodiversity different in different parts of the world?

 

 

47. Why is losing biodiversity from within a community important? Name one thing that maintaining the biodiversity of a region does that is positive to the system?

 

 

There are 5 major categories of reasons why we are losing biodiversity right now. List 3

48. ________________________________________________________________

49. ________________________________________________________________

50. ________________________________________________________________

 

51. Of these 5, which one is generally most important for most species? _______________________________________________________

 

 

52. There are 5 broad categories of solutions to combat the loss of biodiversity. List 2 of them.

a.    ______________________________________________________________

b.    ____________________________________________________________

 

 

53. What is the major stumbling block to the eventual rerelease of rare species back to the wild if we eventually breed enough in zoos to be released?

 

 

 

54. Define “species richness”.

 

 

55. Define “extinction”.

 

56. In the Corridor Video, what was the primary purpose of the expedition? Be specific.

 

 

 

57. Where did the expedition begin and end?

a.    Begin:

b.    End:

58. Where was the most difficult part of the corridor to cross – for the people and the wildlife?

 

 

59. In the urban wildlife video, Dr. Tallamy discusses the importance of bird food in a landscape. What type of bird food did he most often talk about?

 

60. List one of the reasons this type of food is so important?

 

 

61. How did he propose making this type of food more available in a home landscape?

 

 

62. Why are non-native plants in a landscape detrimental to birds and other wildlife? Be specific.

 

Environmental Studies Lecture 2 Exam

Environmental Studies Lecture 2 Exam

Environmental Studies

Lecture Exam 2

 

1.    What, specifically, is meant by the term “natural capital”?

 

2.    Modern economics generally does a very poor job of accurately measuring real economic growth or decline because of “externalities”. What is meant by this?

 

 

 

The environment provides a great many ecological services. In lecture (and in the study guide), I discussed  4 major “bubbles” or major divisions of ecological services. List 2 of them.

3.    _______________________________________________________

4.    _______________________________________________________

Discuss, specifically, what each of the 2 “bubbles” that you chose above means and/or give a specific example

5.    ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.    ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

7.    What is the economic term of “discounting” mean?

 

 

 

8.    Why is this important in our approach to addressing things like climate change?

 

 

9.    Economic growth can occur in 2 ways. List them.

a.    __________________________________________________________

b.    __________________________________________________________

 

10. There are 3 approaches to environmental policy. One is taking legal action. What are the other two?

a.    ___________________________________________________________

b.___________________________________________________________

 

11. Of the 3 above, which one is likely to be the most effective, long term and why?

 

In lecture, I discussed 5 economic policy tools. List 2 of them.

 

 

12. ______________________________________________________

13. ______________________________________________________

 

14. Human population growth is currently exponential. What exactly does that mean?

 

 

15. It will reach a limit eventually. What is this limit called? ____________________________________________________

There are ways to change this limit to a higher number. List 1

16. ____________________________________________________________

 

17. As populations/groups of people accumulate wealth, how does this affect carrying capacity?

 

 

18. Education and wealth can affect population growth. How might it?

 

 

19. Define the term “demography’.

 

20. Population increases are caused by much more than increases in birth rate. List 2 other causes discussed in lecture and your text

a.    ________________________________________________________

b.    _________________________________________________________

21. There are several ways to address the increase in human population growth besides birth control. List 2 that we discussed in lecture and in your text.

a.    ___________________________________________________________

b.___________________________________________________________

 

22. What is the difference between measuring economic growth by GDP and by GPI?

 

 

 

23. Soil is composed of inorganic and organic particles and spaces for water and air. What else is soil composed of that is extremely important in how it functions?

 

 

24. Define the term “leaching” in terms of soil.

 

 

 

25. What was the “Green Revolution”? Be specific

 

 

 

26. Who is the person responsible for initiating the Green Revolution?

 

 

27. Soil erosion can be a problem. Why?

 

 

 

There are many ways to reduce soil erosion. List 2

28. ___________________________________________________________

29. ___________________________________________________________

 

30. There are the major differences between an inorganic and an organic fertilizer? List at least 1.

 

 

 

31. Modern aquaculture has benefits and environmental harms associated with it.  List 1 of each.

 

a.    (positive)______________________________________________________

b.    (negative)_____________________________________________________

 

32. Malnutrition is not just a result of food quantity. What else is involved?

 

 

33. In the TED video we watched with the woman from Ethiopia, she said we needed to measure food availability worldwide by a measure other than weight. What did she use as her measure?___________________________

34. In this video, she showed China going from a food exporter to a country with a large negative balance. Why was this predicted?

 

 

35. What specifically was the solution she proposed to solve the world food problem?

 

 

36. In a different TED video we watched on growing human populations, the Scandinavian speaker used two different color crates to make his point. What did these two colors signify?

 

37. What solution did he propose to alleviate the population problem?

 

 

 

38. What is a problem with that solution in terms of consumption of goods?

 

 

There are many obstacles in feeding the world’s population besides quantity. List 2 that were discussed in lecture.

39. _______________________________________________________

40. _______________________________________________________

.

 

 

41. Define accurately what GMO means.

 

42. What specifically is “random mutagenesis?

 

43. What specifically is meant by “gene splicing”?

 

 

44. A food can also be produced by selective breeding. In a way, this makes it a GMO. What, specifically is meant by selective breeding?

 

 

 

45. Define “biodiversity”.

 

 

46. Why is biodiversity different in different parts of the world?

 

 

47. Why is losing biodiversity from within a community important? Name one thing that maintaining the biodiversity of a region does that is positive to the system?

 

 

There are 5 major categories of reasons why we are losing biodiversity right now. List 3

48. ________________________________________________________________

49. ________________________________________________________________

50. ________________________________________________________________

 

51. Of these 5, which one is generally most important for most species? _______________________________________________________

 

 

52. There are 5 broad categories of solutions to combat the loss of biodiversity. List 2 of them.

a.    ______________________________________________________________

b.    ____________________________________________________________

 

 

53. What is the major stumbling block to the eventual rerelease of rare species back to the wild if we eventually breed enough in zoos to be released?

 

 

 

54. Define “species richness”.

 

 

55. Define “extinction”.

 

56. In the Corridor Video, what was the primary purpose of the expedition? Be specific.

 

 

 

57. Where did the expedition begin and end?

a.    Begin:

b.    End:

58. Where was the most difficult part of the corridor to cross – for the people and the wildlife?

 

 

59. In the urban wildlife video, Dr. Tallamy discusses the importance of bird food in a landscape. What type of bird food did he most often talk about?

 

60. List one of the reasons this type of food is so important?

 

 

61. How did he propose making this type of food more available in a home landscape?

 

 

62. Why are non-native plants in a landscape detrimental to birds and other wildlife? Be specific.